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春季苗木养护四大误区

网址:www.dzyangguang.com.cn  2021-01-08  作者:admin    阅读:

一、浇水过晚或不足
Water is too late or inadequate.
春季气温回升快但不稳定,早春浇水可以有效降低地温,延缓树木发芽,以免遭受晚霜和倒春寒的危害。如果浇水过晚,则起不到防寒、防冻的作用。
Spring temperatures rise quickly but not stable. Watering in early spring can effectively reduce ground temperature and slow down germination of trees, so as to avoid the danger of late frost and late spring chill. If the water is too late, it will not be able to prevent cold and frost.
因此,浇水宜早不宜晚,华东地区一般在3月初较好。此外,还应视土壤墒情和天气情况来浇水,一般可浇2至3次水。
Therefore, watering is sooner rather than later. East China is generally better in early March. In addition, water should be watered according to soil moisture and weather conditions. Generally, 2 to 3 times of water can be poured.

二、不修剪或修剪不当
Two, untrimmed or unpruned
对于大多数花灌木来说,早春是修剪的最佳时期。不仅要疏除病虫枝、枯死枝,还要对一些较长的开花枝进行短截。
For most flowering shrubs, early spring is the best time for pruning. We should not only remove pests and branches, but also cut short branches of longer flowering branches.
有人认为,对开花枝条进行短截或疏除会减少开花数量,太可惜了。实际上,树体的营养是有限的,花开得多,花朵相对就小,花期就短;反之,花开得少,花朵就大,花期相对就长一些。
Some people think that it would be a pity to cut short the flowering branches or reduce the number of flowers. In fact, the nutrition of the tree body is limited, blooming is much, the flower is relatively small, the flowering time is short; conversely, the flower is little, the flower is big, the flowering period is a little longer.
那么,在花后再进行此类修剪行不行呢?
Can we do this kind of pruning after flowering?
答案是否定的。因为开花已经消耗了大量营养,花后再对其进行短截、疏枝已没有实际意义。
The answer is negative. Since flowering has consumed a lot of nutrition, it has no practical significance to cut it short and branch.
另外,在花后及时将山桃、榆叶梅、连翘等非观果树种的残花剪除是十分必要的,以免结果消耗养分。即使是观果的花灌木,适当疏除一些残花也是正确的。果实太多,会使植株消耗过多养分,引起落果或果实发育不良。
In addition, it is necessary to cut off the residual flowers of fruit trees such as peach, elm, forsythia and so on after flowering, so as not to result in nutrient consumption. Even fruiting shrubs are correct to properly remove some residual flowers. Too much fruit will cause plants to consume too much nutrients and cause fruit or fruit development.

三、施肥不当
Three. Improper fertilization
春季是花灌木生长旺盛期,此时施肥能及时供给植物开花、结果和生长的营养。人们在春季经常只施氮肥,而忽视磷、钾肥。对于一些观果的花灌木,春季适量施一些磷、钾肥可以有效提高花灌木的坐果率,如只施氮肥会导致幼果脱落。
Spring is the flowering season for flowering shrubs. Fertilization can provide timely nutrition for plants to bloom, grow and grow. People often use nitrogen fertilizer in spring instead of phosphorus and potash fertilizer. For some flowering shrubs, suitable amount of phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in spring can effectively increase the fruit setting rate of flowering shrubs.
此外,还应适量施一些有机肥,如牛粪、羊粪等。过去认为施有机肥必须要腐熟,如果是用作基肥是非常正确的,因为肥料不腐熟,发酵时会产生热量,极易烧伤根系。而春天追肥则可采用半熟肥,但不宜施得过深。
In addition, some organic fertilizers should be applied, such as cow dung, sheep manure, etc. In the past, it was believed that the application of organic fertilizer must be rotten. If it was used as a base fertilizer, it was very correct, because the fertilizer was not ripe, the heat produced in the fermentation, and it was very easy to burn the root. In addition, half cooked fertilizer can be applied to the top dressing in spring, but not too deep.

四、不注意病虫害防治
Four. Do not pay attention to the prevention and control of diseases and pests
有些人认为夏天气温高、湿度大,是病虫害多发期,却忽视了春季病虫害防治。实际上,春天也是病虫害多发期,春季常发生的虫害有红蜘蛛、介壳虫、蚜虫、切叶蜂、蝗虫、刺娥、卷夜蛾等,主要为害桃、李、樱、杏、紫荆、榆叶梅、贴梗海棠、玉兰、腊梅等花木。
Some people think summer is high and humidity is high. It is a frequent occurrence of pests and diseases, but it ignores the prevention and control of pests and diseases in spring. In fact, spring is also a period of disease and insect pests, often occurring in spring, there are red spiders, shell insects, aphids, leaf cutting bees, locusts, spines, Spodoptera Spodoptera and so on, which are mainly harmful to peach, plum, cherry, apricot, Bauhinia, elm, Malus, Magnolia, plum and other flowers and trees.
春季易发生的病害有:桃、李、樱、杏的流胶病,桃、紫叶李的叶穿孔病、叶斑病,牡丹的叶斑病等。
Diseases easily occurring in spring include gum disease of peach, plum, cherry and apricot, leaf perforation, leaf spot disease and peony leaf spot of peach and purple leaf plum.

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